Reflections of a Clinician-Data Scientist: Successes, Disappointments, and Future Directions of AI in Healthcare 


Artificial intelligence (AI) is becoming increasingly important for pathologists due to its potential to revolutionize various aspects of pathology and healthcare. Here are some key reasons why AI is valuable for pathologists:


  1. Improved Accuracy and Efficiency: Pathologists deal with vast amounts of medical data, including tissue samples and medical images. AI algorithms can analyze this data quickly and accurately, helping pathologists detect abnormalities, classify diseases, and make more precise diagnoses. AI systems can significantly reduce the time taken for analysis, leading to quicker results and faster treatment decisions.
  2. Assistance in Complex Diagnoses: Some medical cases can be extremely challenging, and pathologists may encounter rare diseases or unusual presentations. AI can assist pathologists by providing additional insights and references from a vast repository of medical literature and case studies, helping them make more informed decisions.
  3. Personalized Treatment Plans: AI can aid in predicting patient outcomes and treatment responses based on individual patient data, including genetic information, lifestyle factors, and medical history. This allows pathologists to tailor treatment plans to each patient's specific needs, improving overall care and patient outcomes.
  4. Large-Scale Data Analysis: Pathology generates enormous amounts of data over time. AI excels at handling and analyzing big data, making it easier for pathologists to identify trends, patterns, and correlations that may not be apparent through manual examination. These insights can contribute to advancements in medical research and treatment protocols.
  5. Telepathology and Remote Consultations: AI-powered telepathology systems allow pathologists to share digital slides and collaborate with colleagues or experts from anywhere in the world. This facilitates second opinions and expert consultations, particularly in regions where specialized medical expertise may be scarce.
  6. Quality Assurance and Error Reduction: AI can assist in quality assurance by cross-referencing new diagnoses with past cases to identify discrepancies or errors. It can also help in standardizing diagnoses, reducing the risk of human errors, and improving the overall reliability of pathology reports.
  7. Workload Management: AI can automate repetitive tasks, such as screening slides for common conditions, freeing up pathologists' time to focus on more complex and critical cases.
  8. Training and Education: AI can be used as a valuable tool in the training and education of future pathologists. It can simulate challenging scenarios, provide feedback, and help aspiring pathologists improve their skills and knowledge.
  9. Advancements in Image Analysis: AI techniques like deep learning have shown remarkable success in image recognition and analysis. In pathology, this translates to more accurate and faster analysis of histopathological images, cytology samples, and radiology scans.

Overall, the integration of AI into pathology has the potential to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve patient care, and advance medical research, making it an indispensable tool for pathologists in the modern healthcare landscape.
(From ChatGPT)

Artificial intelligence successes included medical image interpretation, biomolecular structure determination, and robotic process automation. The many relative disappointments include decision support, health system adoption, and lack of AI education for clinicians. Lastly, future directions of AI in healthcare include formation of a health learning system with more clinician cognition. 
(From ACC)

Example of clinician-AI synergy!



  1. Appreciate the value of artificial intelligence in pathology in a myriad of real world scenarios.
  2. Understand the past successes and disappointments as well as future directions of AI in healthcare.
  3. See how the technology of artificial intelligence can be understood for the healthcare stakeholder.


Presented By:


Chang_AnthonyAnthony Chang, MD, MBA,MPH, MS

Chief Intelligence and Innovation Officer,
Children's Hospital of Orange County (CHOC)
Chairman and Founder,


Anthony Chang, MD, MBA, MPH, MS, is a pediatric cardiologist and Medical Director of the Heart Failure Program at Children's Hospital Orange County. Dr. Chang serves as Chief Intelligence and Innovation Officer of The Medical Intelligence and Innovation Institute (MI3) that is supported by the Sharon Disney Lund Foundation. The institute is dedicated to implement data science and artificial intelligence in medicine and is the first institute of its kind in a hospital. Dr. Chang completed his Masters of Science (MS) in Data Science with a sub-specialization in artificial intelligence from Stanford School of Medicine. Dr. Chang has a Masters in Business Administration (MBA) in Health Care Administration from the University of Miami School of Business and a Masters in Public Health (MPH) in Health Care Policy from the Jonathan Fielding School of Public Health of the University of California, Los Angeles.